Job specification definition
In this part, I answer all of you question: What is job specification or person specification.
Job Specification is a description of specific knowledge, skills and abilities that are required to perform the job. Job Specification is defined as the summary of minimum requirements for a person to apply for the job.
Job specification definition of Wikipedia:
The person specification is to extend the job analysis. It is a profile of the candidate required for the work and is submitted with the job.
A person specification is written by the firm and outlines the type of person the firm wants. It might contain the educational qualifications, previous experience, general intelligence, specialized skills, interests, personality and physical requirements.
A person specification is used to match the right person to the job. It describes the desirable personal attributes of the job holder. The specification should specify the person’s:
– skills on the job
– knowledge of and for the job
– length of experience for the job
– attitude for the job
Job specification definition of Vermont.com:
A job specification is an official document which describes the duties, required knowledge, skills and abilities, and minimum qualifications of State jobs. A specification is not a job announcement and the existence of a specification does not imply that the State of Vermont is recruiting for that class.
The Difference: Job Description vs Job Specification
1. Job description is a written statement that defines the duties, relationships and results expected of anyone in the job. It is an overall view of what is to be done in the job.
===> Job description = duties list, tasks list.
2. Job specification is what requirements are necessary to perform the task.
===> Job specification = skills, abilities … required to perform the above tasks, duties.
How to design a job specification?
A typical job specification contains competencies, which are defined as essential or desirable knowledge or skills that a candidate should have.
Most common competencies are:
• Physical attributes (health, age…)
• Education level (education degree, certificate or diploma)
• Aptitudes or abilities (verbal reasoning, numerical reasoning…)
• Interests or Hobbies (social activities, sports…)
• Additional details (willing to work overtime, full time or part time)
Why are job specifications important ?
Functions / benefits of job specification include 5 elements as follows:
1. Find out prospective candidate
Job specification pay a important role in finding out prospective employees to a particular job.
The specifications you prepare will help you evaluate curriculum vitae more speedily and ruthlessly, as well as providing a list of pertinent questions for interview.
2. The importance of job specification also reflect in attracting candidate.
A job specification will be the first introduction to candidate. It is therefore crucial that it is professional and portrays the right image. So that when yơu write a dynamic, accurate job specification, you will be attracted the appropriate candidate.
3. Set up competency of organization
Organization should set up their core competency and job specification will help them to implement competency programs.
4. Job specification pay a important role in identifying competencies of employee
Employer can identify the exact duties and competencies of the position.
5. Orientation to candidate
Candidate can determine if his / her experience and qualifications suit the job specification.
Contents of a job specification:
include 9 components as follows:
1.1 Job information:
The title should be chosen carefully as it provides importance and status for the employee.
Describe the location of the job in the organizational structure and working location.
How many hours a week and a comment about flexibility if this is offered (beyond your legal duties)?
Who will the post holder report to?
1.2 Job Purpose: to identify nature of job.
1.3 Main duties: to identify key duties of job (limited to 7 or 10 tasks).
1.4 Knowledge / qualification:
Knowledge can include the educational or vocational qualifications and other related knowledge gained from learning or
Knowledge is an organized body of information that a person mentally possesses as a result of formal education, training, or personal experience.
1.5 Skill requirements: skills include on the job skills and any specialized competencies.
1.6 Experience: describe minimum experience required to perform job satisfactorily; may include preferred/desired experience).
1.7 Abilities. Ability include physical ability, metal ability, aptitudes.
Physical specifications includes health, strength, age range, body size, weight, vision, poise etc.
Mental specifications include ability to perform, arithmetical calculations, to interpret data, information blue prints, to read etc.
1.9 Requirements due to working environment
2. Related elements to job specifications
Apart from contents of a job specification above, the following elements also affects recruitment process of organization:
2.1 Behavior / Attitude Specifications:
Behavioral specifications include judgments, research, creativity, teaching ability, maturity trial of conciliation, self-reliance etc.
Aptitudes is a capacity for learning (e.g. ability to learn correctional institution policies and procedures.) It is very difficult to measure aptitudes and it do not belong in job specifications.
Job specification should be avoided:
When conduct a job specification, you should be avoided from elements as follows in compliance with labor law:
• National Origin
• Sexual Orientation
• Marital Status
• Dependent Care Responsibilities
• Unnecessary criteria
How to perform / conduct a job specification?
You should do 4 steps as follows for conducting /writing a job specification.
Step 1: Collect job information
Collecting job information include elements:
• Prepare a list of all jobs in the company and where they are located.
• Collect all written job description used.
• List task of position.
Step 2: Setup procedures, working instructions.
With each task, you should answer question: how to do this task, results of this question are:
• Working instructions.
• Machine using instructions.
• MSDS (material safety data sheet).
Based on above documents, you will identify sub-task (task to sub-task).
Step 3: Identify job specification for each task
Each task, you should answer questions as follows:
• What is knowledge necessary to perform this task?
• What is skill necessary to perform this task?
• Same questions for ability, experience…
You also design a table which include columns: No, Tasks, knowledge, skills, experience, abilities (include physical specifications, mental specifications), Licenses/Certification etc.
Step 4: Create a job specification
Based on above specifications, you group them into category as knowledge, skills…
You also can refer to posts: contents of a job specification and free sample job specification as below in order to complete your job specification.
How to develop job specifications?
You should use KSA model or competency model in order to develop person specification
Job spec examples
You can use free sample / example job specifications as follows: